Our world 1 students book pdf

  1. Our World 1 Teachers book
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  4. Our World 2. Student's Book

Language presentation and review. – Games. – National Geographic video. – and Our World Reader Story Time. STUDENT'S BOOk AND VIDEO. Level 1. Please visit this site on a desktop or laptop device to access the Downloads Level 1 - Story Time Video - What's in My Classroom? Student Book Sampler. Our World 1 Student's book - ISBN: ; Our World 1 Classroom Our World 1 Lesson Planner with Class Audio CDs and Teacher's Resource.

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Our World 1 Students Book Pdf

Our World is a six-level primary series in British English that brings the world into Our World 1. Student's Book. pdf. Раздел: Content and Language Integrated. Welcome to Our World 1 Student Book. 2-Pdf embed, Kindergarten, Listening, National Geographic, Reading & Writing, Speaking No Comments · Tweet · Pin It. Student's Book (+Audio) * Workbook 2_Explore Our World 2 - Teacher Book. pdf. МБ World English 1_(SB, wb)_2nd edition (National Geographic).

Introducing the E-Book Question Introduction Information technology and especially the Internet have profoundly changed the ways of publishing. Newspapers, magazines and periodicals have for years been published online and all kinds of texts are now available in digitised form. At the turn of the century this digitalisation of the written language finally reached the book publishing industry; electronic books - or e-books - can now be bought and downloaded from various kinds of e-bookstores on line. In this essay I shall define the concept of e-book and describe some aspects of the e-book technology. I shall argue that the development of e-books at this stage in history is by no means accidental. On the contrary, considering the rise of the network society, with its flow of information and money, where all kinds of digital media content are sold and spread through the networks, it was only a matter of time before someone started to tear the vast quantities of content of books out of their printed paper pages and attempted to generate income in the networks of the new economy. Digital media and networks have created new products and marketplaces; e-books are the books of the network society. By focusing on new value chains and book production processes, I will examine some of the changes the network economy will bring upon the publishing industry. In doing so I also hope to shed some light on the changes awaiting booksellers, printers, librarians, researchers, students and readers.

There's a monster with six eyes. I'm tired. Tell Daisy. There's a monster in the forest. Tom, please. Tell Harriet. Tom Harriet! Harriet What's the matter? Tom There's a monster in the forest. Harriet Tom Harriet A monster with six eyes. There's a monster with six eyes in the forest.

OK, OK. Where's my torch? Harriet Where? Tom Over there! Harriet Ah. Tom What is it? Harriet That's the monster! It's lovely. Three little owls in a tree. Speaking There's a monster with six eyesl Complete the dialogue with the phrases below then repeat it. What else is there? Is there a bookshelf?

Our World 1 Teachers book

No, there isn't. What's your new bedroom like, Kate? Nadia Kate Jack Well, it's not very big. Kate Yes, there is. It's small, but that's OK. Nadia Kate Steve Kate Is there a light for reading in bed? Well, there are blue curtains and two blue chai rs. There's a desk, and on it there's a computer. Describe your ideal room. There are. Sleep What is sleep? Sleep is the body's natural 'pause button', During sleep, the muscles relax, Breathing gets slow, The heartbeat gets slow, The brain works differently too, Why do we sleep?

Scientists aren't sure, But they are sure that sleep is very important for the brain and the body, Key words body muscles breathing heartbeat brain scientists human hibernate in danger hunted The differentstages 01 sleep- Human [vear-old] Read the text, Write the stages of sleep in the correct place on the graph, Humans sleep in cycles of about minutes, There are two types of sleep: The body slows, the muscles relax.

It is easy. Stage two After ten minutes of light sleep, you start 'true sleep' This lasts about 20 minutes. People breathe more slowly, the heart beats more slowly. Most sleep in the night is 'true sleep'. Stage three Breathing and heartbeat are very slow now. This is because the eyes move very quickly. People have between three and five REM phases a night. They are not awake but the brain is awake and active.

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People dream during REM sleep but the body cannot move. That stops people 'acting' their dreams. Sleep Stage ' 1 1. There is some muscle activity. It is difficult to wake up from this sleep. They are active dUring the night. But not all animals I sleep the same number of hours. What is important for animals is how safe I e they are when they are asleep, If an animal is in danger for example, if other animals hunt it to eat then it will sleep fewer hours.

Write the correct letter in each photo. There they are safe from lions. Nearly four hours is REM sleep. They have about 30 minutes of REM sleep a night d l ions sleep about They only get up to drink.

They hunt duringthe night e Dolphins sleep for 10 hours a day. Make a note of: Nadia Oh? Kate There's a new boy in my brother's class' Nadia Oh really? Kate Yeah, he's French, I think. Or Spanish, perhaps - I'm not sure. His name's Alain. Nadia Alain? Well, he's probably French. It's a French name.

Is he good-looking? Kate Yeah - he's tall, and he's got fa ir hair and blue eyes And he's Nadia Nice' Has he got an accent? Let's go to Jerry's for an ice cream. They've got great ice cream there' Kate Yeah, good idea. The ice creams are on me' There's a new girl in Kate's brother's class. Vocabularv Countries and nationalities o Write the name of the country and the nationality in the correct place. A Where's she from? B She's from Brazil. A Oh, she's Brazilian.

Get talking Describing people o Work with a partner. Describe one ofthe pictures below and ask your partner which one it is.

B It's number three. Complete the table. He's got fair hair. I haven't got any money. Yes, he has. He's got a dog n". UNIT 4 53 Has he got a cat? It's black and white. It's brown. Gettalking Talking about possessIOns o Listen and complete. B Yes, I have.

A What '. B They're ' A How '.. B She's , She's got A What's her S B Joanna. B Yes, we have. A What's its '. B Blackie. A What ' A How s. Ask and answer about people, animals and things. What colour. The indefinile arlicle Look at the examples and complete the rule. Complete with a or an. Reading o Read the texts and match them to the correct picture.

She's British. She's from london. She's got long, brown hair. Her eyes are blue. Sttrtt is 14 years old. She's German. She's from Berlin. She's got long, fair hair and blue eyes. S'1lvt'e is 13 years old. She's American. She's from Chicago. She's got short, brown hair and blue eyes. UNIT 4 55 Try and guess the nationality of each one. A I think the girl in photo 5 is from Spain Look - she's got black hair. My penfriend name ir Alex. The Finnirh fla9 ir blue and white.

D 3 There is two good actors in the film. D 4 Are there two new CDs in your bag? D' 5 There is six books under my desk. My brother Maths homework tonight. Have you got a bicycle?

My progress so far is Read the information about Sarah and complete the sentence. Hi, I'm Sarah. I'm twelve years old. I'm at secondary school in year 8. It's a comprehensive school in the south of England. This is my school uniform. I hate it. The shirt is The skirt is The jumper is Thejacket is Geography , History Music 7 ,..

Gorilla I'm fine, thanks. Frog I'm Freddy. I'm a wide-mouthed frog, and my favourite food is flies. Gorilla I'm Gordon. I'm a gorilla. My favourite food is bananas. Frog Well, nice to meet you! Bye, gorilla! Gorilla Bye, frog! Frog Hi. Bear I'm fine, thanks. I'm a wide-mouthed frog. My favourite food is flies. Bear I'm Betty. I'm a bear. My favourite food is honey. Bye, bear! Bear Bye, frog! Crocodile I'm fine, thanks. Crocodile I'm Carl. I'm a crocodile. My favourite food is Frog Dh no, oh no, oh no!

UNIT 4 Nadia Hello. Can I have chicken and chips, please? Woman Of course, dear. Would you like cabbage, too? Nadia Um. Yes, please! Woman OK. Here you are. Nadia Thanks. Jack Cabbage? You never eat cabbage! Nadia That isn't true. I eat cabbage every week. Well, almost every week. Jack I hate cabbage. My dad loves it. He eats it every Sunday. Woman And for you, dear? Jack Oh, sorry!

Er, can I have fish, please? With potatoes Woman Would you like tomatoes? Jack No thanks. Just potatoes. Oh, and a yoghurt too, please. Nadia I hate yoghurt, but my mother loves it. She eats it every day. She always takes yoghurt to work with her. Jack Oh? I eat it about four times a week. It's good for you! Nadia wants chicken and chips. Yes, '.. Woman ' Jack No, , Gettalking Making and replying to polite offers 4 Work with a partner. Ask and answer using the pictures below.

Yes, please. UNIT 5 61 Lan ua e Focu Vocabularv. Can I have fish? Gellalking Polite requests o Work in pairs. Read the dialogue. Use the pictures to make different dialogues. Boy Can I have chicken and rice.

Dinner lady Yes, of course. Spelling 3rd person singular Notice the spellings. Relax - My dad always relaxes after Sunday breakfast. Kiss - She kisses her mum goodbye. Wash - He washes his bike on Saturdays. Do - Mary does the shopping. Carry - Steve carries the shopping for his mum. Watch - Jenny watches DVDs every day.

My brother always DVDs on my computer. TV every day. UNIT 5 63 I Adverbs of frequency o Read the examples and complete the rule.

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I often play football. I am never late. Itwatch TV on Sunday. Ci Listen and complete the sentences. CD Talk about your favourite food. I love chicken soup. I often eat sausages. Skills Gellalking Ta. Two people in our group eat hamburgers or hot dogs three times a week. UNIT 5 65 Reading o Read the texts.

I live in Shanghai. In my family we often eat rice and noodles. I like noodles. We never eat cheese and we never drink milk. We often eat vegetables, such as cabbage, spinach and carrots and we sometimes eat fish. My father and my mother like fish, but I never eat fish.

I like fruit. My favourites are grapes, strawberries and oranges. I'm Sunil. I live in Delhi, in India. Our family often has curry for lunch. We always have rice or bread with our curries. And we often drink yoghurt drinks. My sister hates yoghurt. She never has yoghurt drinks. She likes fruit and usually drinks mango juice. We always eat together at the same time. Hi, I'm Jennifer. I live on Fraser Island, Australia.

In our family, we often eat fish for dinner. My dad loves fishing. And we always have fruit: I love mangoes. We never eat beef or pork.

My mum and dad never download it. We sometimes have curries. I love chicken curry. Thank you Teacher OK. Can I have a hot dog, then? Can I have a Dinner lady Sorry, we , Jack Sorry, Sir, ' Nadia But there's a Teacher Hmm. Bye' Jack Sir? Can I come with you, Sir? Read the text and describe your eating habits. I al-Vay5 have tea for breakfa5t. I 50metime5 have an e My little brother never eat5 e Me ha5 milk, bread and butter. For lunch -Ve often haVe 5alad.

We 50metime5 have pizza. On Sunday5 -Ve 50metime5 90 to a re5taurant. My brother hate5 potatoe5. Me al-Vay5 ha5 rice. There are many reasons. The climate can playa role. People's religions and cultures are also important. Some religions do not eat certain foods. People also travel more these days so they try food from different countries.

Of course, how much money you have also counts. Compare your ideas with a partner. Look at the map. Write the numbers of the countries next to the names. Listen and check. We all need to eat. But food is also an important commodity for many countries. Countries can sell export their food to other countries or download [import food from other countries. Which of the countries in Exercise 3 are they about? The capital city is Quito. People speak Spanish here.

This country exports a lot of bananas and shrimps. People speak Portuguese here. This country produces and exports a lot of coffee, sugar and soya. This country produces a lot of olive oil and pasta. Mini-project Tomorrow make a list of the food you eat. FInd out where it came from. Write short texts like those In ExercIse 5 about some of the countries.

Then test your friends. People speak Arabic here. This country produces fresh fruit and vegetables. People speak English here. This country produces a lot of wheat and rice. It is famous for fast food. This country has the biggest population in the world. People eat a lot of fish and rice. UNIT 5 Nadia Hi. Would you like a crisp? Kate No, thanks. I don't like them. Nadia Oh dear! What's the matter with you today? Kate I'm bored.

My life's the same every day. I go to school, I have a boring lunch, I go home, I do my homework, then I have dinner, I listen to music and I go to bed at half past ten. The next day, I get up and do it againl Nadia So what? What's the problem? It's the same for me. Kate It's boring, boring, boringl I never go to interesting places. My parents don't understand me.

And that good-looking boy Alain doesn't like mel Nadia Hold on, Katel Think about the good things in your life, like the French test tomorrow. Kate Ha, hal Do you know any goodjokes? In a Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan-inspired, media deterministic way of the 's and 60's, it would be tempting to ask: How will e-books alter our concept of a book, our thinking and our consciousness?

How will the digital word change the powers and patterns of society? Simply, will e-books change the world?

This position has been criticised and modified by both media theorists and by many other scholars. In the 's Raymond Williams complemented technological determinism with his own intentional view on technological research and development. He showed that many technological innovations, like motion pictures and television, were not only causes and agents of change, but just as much effects, the result of intentional research and development based on foreseen practices and social needs [ 6 ].

For Williams, technology is not a self-acting force, a more or less accidental activity, isolated from the rest of society. On the contrary, technological research and implementation is a central part of the economic and cultural development of modern society and as such technological development is embedded in society itself as one of its core activities [ 7 ].

According to Williams, in order to understand a technology like e-books, one should not just focus on its consequences, but more importantly analyse the development of e-books as part of a broader economic and social pattern.

Why were e-books invented in the first place? In the 's Joshua Meyrowitz, a medium theorist, tried to fill the gap between the grand theories of media determinists like Innis and McLuhan and micro-oriented social interaction theorists like Erwin Goffman [ 8 ].

By using a situational approach, Meyrowitz illustrated how new media are changing the structure of social situations. By changing the patterns of information flow, new media are creating new situations with new roles, new behaviour and new actors [ 9 ]. Even if Meyrowitz and Williams rejected the one-sidedness of media determinism and pointed to the fact that the theory did not explain exactly how media cause changes, they still recognised that many media deterministic analyses have substantially contributed to our understanding of media and society.

But not all recognised these insights. In the 's Brian Winston challenged the concept of communication technology revolutions. Supported by findings in extensive empirical studies, Winston claimed that developments of new technologies are much longer and slower processes than usually assumed. Winston also argued that the innovation and development of new media is dependent on general scientific competence in society.

More importantly, the acceptance and later diffusion of technologies are dependent on supervening social necessities and influenced by cultural and economic forces. Winston gives the social sphere primacy as the conditioning and determining factor in the development of new media [ 10 ]. Reflecting on the deterministic view on media influence, one could be attempted to drop this perspective all together, or at least minimise the ambitions of questions on the potential effects of e-books.

Instead of asking global questions on the nature of the digital e-book galaxy and how e-books will change everything, including our minds, it would be safer to more cautiously ask if the invention of e-books will matter at all. Will e-books change anything?

Our World 2. Student's Book

Of course e-books matter, and the invention of e-books will have consequences. The point is that e-book technology is not the only agent of change and probably not the most important agent of change.

Instead of isolating e-books as the focus of our research, we should broaden our perspectives and see e-books as part of larger and deeper economic and technological trends. In addition to view the e-book as a cause, we should look at the e-book as more of a symptom and itself an effect, the result of intentional research done with certain purposes and practices already in mind. Winston has an important point which can be applied here.

The development of e-books is the result of social and economic necessities, rather than the consequence of ingenious ideas as technological myths often want us to believe [ 11 ].

In accordance with the governing ideas of non deterministic perspectives, we should ask questions like: What were the scientific and technological premises for the development of e-books? What purposes are e-books meant to fulfill? How will the economic interests of publishers and rights owners influence the spread and use of e-books? How will the conservative habits of readers slow down the diffusion of e-books?

And most importantly, what economic and social forces created and shaped the e-book technology? Brian Winston and many other theorists have in the past decade tried to describe and explain the information and network society that evolved during the most recent quarter of a century, much of it as media deterministic thinking.

Manuel Castells, for example, remarked that a technological revolution, centred around information, transformed the way we think, produce, trade, consume, manage, communicate, live and die [ 12 ]. Castells argues that the dilemmas of technological determinism are false dilemmas. Technology is simply society and society cannot be understood or even represented without its technical tools. Castells has been criticised for not taking social conditions into closer consideration.

His analyses therefore end up echoing deterministic positions of the past as well as those of the digital economy of today [ 13 ]. In spite of this criticism, Castells has been given credit for his overwhelming documentation of the impact of network technologies on both the global economy and on our daily lives [ 14 ].

At a micro level, we are all part of the network society when we use our credit cards, order a taxi, pay a bill, use a card key, pass a surveillance camera, watch cable TV, use our PC, surf the Internet or use our mobile phones. At a macro level network logic is the central organisational principle of management and production in multinational companies.

It is also a driving force in the ongoing concentrations of companies in most branches. Networks make the infrastructural basis of a global flow of information, money and commodities. In the modern economy both productivity and competitiveness are dependent on an ability to generate, parse and make use of information. Thus information is one of society's most important end products. Since information is digital, it is available at all times to those who have technological competence, financial resources and access.

Patterns of presence in networks and patterns of access to information constitute, according to Castells, the patterns of power in modern society [ 15 ]. As part of this general tendency media industries have been transformed.

New media are evolving, most of them centred around networks, especially the Internet. Radio, television and newspapers, as well as photography, music and movies, have been transformed into digital media [ 16 ]. In addition to Castells and Winston, other theorists have examined central features of this transformation, that is the digitisation of media and their convergence on telecommunications networks.

All media and telecommunication are based on related technologies, converging towards access and control on the Internet [ 18 ]. Networks and digital devices give traditional media new and common ways of distributing their content. This tendency is also a part of the development of printed media, of newspapers, magazines - and now books. The book industry, as all other media, is becoming an integrated component of the global communication industry [ 19 ]. It is exactly here, in the penetrating impact of network and information technology on society that we find the deeper reasons for the development of e-books.

Perhaps traditional book technology is not suited to, or at least not sufficient for, the network economy. It is a fact that information in a book is analog; it is locked-up in ink and printed on paper. In the network economy information is digital, which of course is essential for its migration and use. To be part of the new economy the content of books can no longer be longer locked inside the covers of books and stored in warehouses or libraries. It has to be freed and read.

And e-book technology is a digital and network based technology for both distributing and reading books. Was the development of e-books inevitable? Are e-books the vehicle for the book industry to play an important part in the network society of today and tomorrow? Or does the information society and network economy need the content of books available in a faster and more efficient way?

Are e-books an answer to a social necessity?

In this essay I will claim that e-books are a social necessity and make this claim the premises of further arguments. I will argue that exactly because e-book technology meets the requirements of the network society, its development and diffusion will trigger major changes in the book industry and in our concepts of books and reading.

The Method In support of these arguments I will follow the advise of Joshua Meyrowitz in neither being too macro- nor too micro-oriented in my perspective [ 20 ], but rather operate at a level of middle range theories.

I will focus on the challenges book publishers face in the current information and network society. Information and communication technology, with all its publication forms and distribution channels, have created new value chains, giving traditional publishers both new competitors and new possibilities. I will show how this new situation forces publishers into new roles and patterns of behaviour, moving from traditional book producers to content providers with a whole range of products for sale, including e-books.

I will more specifically show how the new economy, with its network supported flow of information and money, in a fundamental way not only changes the distribution and trade of books, but also in a rather fundamental way alters the ways book content is produced and, ultimately, changes the nature of the book itself. By focusing on the situation of publishers and book production processes, I hopefully will shed some light on the actors and institutions surrounding publishers.

If my assumptions about e-books are correct, then it will gravely affect authors, artists and illustrators, book distributors and retailers, educators, students and of course readers.

This is an uncertain way of predicting the future. We do not know how readers, teachers or publishers will respond to e-books because the technology could have unforeseen effects and new technologies not yet anticipated could change the picture altogether.

But these uncertainties must not prevent us from pursuing this analysis. I will start by defining e-books, describe their development and indicate a probable pace of diffusion. In its digital form the content of an e-book escapes the pages of an ordinary book because simply the content is no longer tied physically to paper. An e-book can in principle be available anywhere through the Internet, accessed any hour of the day. All you need is an Internet connection, an e-book reading device and money.

So what is an e-book? A narrow definition treats an e-book as a digital object designed to be read on a handheld reading device or to be listened to from a speech-generating tool.

The core of this definition is that an e-book is content, a digital object containing an electronic representation of a book, most commonly thought of as the electronic analog of a paperback or cloth-bound book [ 21 ]. However, to think of an e-book as one digital object is misleading.

An e-book is usually a collection of several digital objects or documents, which in turn are packaged and formatted with the intention of being displayed on a handheld device or read by a speech generating application. An e-book is a digital publication containing content files and style sheets in many forms, with metadata, digital rights, navigation and other components.

The content is made up of text documents, digital pictures and illustrations. Style sheets give typographic and layout directives on how to display the content of the book while other files organise the order of the book's content. Metadata provides a summary about the book for example, authors, publisher, ISBN and price , while digital rights management DRM files specify the rights of the owner of the book. All of these different documents are collected in one publication in a proprietary format, such as the.

In a narrow sense an e-book reader is most typically a handheld electronic device capable of displaying e-books. E-book reader software operates on an e-book reader providing copyright protection and book display functions [ 24 ]. E-books in the strict sense are read on handheld devices. In a slightly wider sense, e-books are also those digital objects formatted in order to be read on e-book reading software made for personal computers, like MS Reader and Adobe Acrobat E-book Reader [ 28 ] the former Glassbook.

In many cases these applications themselves are called e-book readers. In a much broader sense, the term e-book is applied to all linear texts of some length that can be shown on a computer screen.

But in this sense e-books are difficult to distinguish from all other electronic texts, like those created in word processors and desktop publishing programs.

Most of these were not created as "books". If they are and can be shown on a screen, they are definitely not made with the purpose of always being read on a monitor. In the broad sense e-books have been around for several decades. In the Gutenberg Project [ 29 ] thousands of books, mostly classic and public domain literature, have been made available for free as digital documents since the 's. These kinds of books are usually available as simply text files, so they are not e-books in the narrow sense of the word.

To be treated as e-books, they have to be converted into and formatted using a specific e-book reading application, for which a simple text file makes a good starting point [ 30 ]. Before the term e-book came around in the late 's it was not unusual to talk about electronic books in terms of files collected in the Gutenberg Project or books formatted on compact discs. There were also early unsuccessful attempts at making reading software for computers.

These programs were meant to be reading software for what was then called electronic books [ 31 ]. Today the term e-book refers to digital objects specially made to be read with reading applications operating on either a handheld device or a personal computer.

This modern concept of e-books came into common use after Martin Eberhart and Jim Sachs both started their own companies and developed Rocket eBook and SoftBook, the first two handheld e-book reading devices. This meaning is frequently used in the Open E-Book Forum OEBF , which is working towards standardisation of publication structures and copyright protection systems in e-books [ 32 ].

It is also in the narrow meaning that Microsoft most often uses for e-books. Adobe uses the term e-book in a slightly different way than most others in promoting the Portable Document Format PDF. PDF is first of all popular. Even if they are made to be printed, PDF documents can be read with Adobe's Acrobat Reader, certainly the most widespread reading software of all. In Adobe acquired Glassbook and their e-book reading software and made Adobe Acrobat E-book Reader a specific e-book reading program.

Adobe, like Microsoft, is also developing font-rendering technologies to improve screen reading. This, and the fact that PDF documents can be optimised for screen reading, makes it natural to include PDF in our concept of e-books. E-book retailers like site. Adobe and PDF demonstrate that it can be difficult to distinguish e-books - documents mainly made and meant for reading on screen - from other documents, like files developed in word processing applications and desktop publishing programs.

On one hand digital objects that are meant for print, such as documents intended to be printed on demand, like PDF files, will in many cases be called e-books, mainly because they are distributed as digital objects, often read before they are printed locally. On the other hand, narrowly defined e-books, files meant for handheld devices or PC reading applications, in many cases have the technical capability of being printed and reproduced like traditional books and documents.

E-books, both in the narrow and in the Adobean sense, are distributed via Internet and sold in many ways. Some authors are selling their own e-books from their Web sites, such as Stephen King. Some e-book stores have specialised in selling e-books of one format only or books of one specific genre.

Other complete e-bookstores, like site. In the e-book trade there are many different business models, but there are commonalities: they all use the Web and online payment systems and they usually include some kind of copy protection scheme.

E-books are produced by many kinds of electronic publishers, from bestseller publishers to university presses and multinational publishing conglomerates. Most traditional publishers are moving gently and cautiously into the e-book business. For example, in Norway and Sweden Aschehoug and Bonniers have stared to sell a limited number of e-book titles online.

In the U. But where did they go? But one day Tiger was tricked by a man, and that trick led to Tiger's fur getting stripes.

What was the man's trick? Her father, the king, held a concert. He promised great riches to the musician who could make his daughter smile. One man sang so beautifully that the princess smiled.

But h But he did not want gold. He only wanted the princess' love. The princess agreed to marry him only if he learned to sing as sweetly as the songbirds. Would he succeed and win the princess? The Cherokee people of North America believed that the Earth was an island on a big sea, and the sky was attached to it with ropes.

They believ

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