Cswip New Book - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. CSWIP - Welding Inspector WIS5 () - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Course Note. Uploaded by. alefeli26 · CSWIP-WI 13th Edition July pdf. Uploaded by. jaisonaero. PROFESSIONAL??TWI CSWIP Welding Inspector Course WIS 5 TWI CSWIP Senior Welding Inspector Course WIS 10 DEMONSTRATED EXPERTISEDocuments. CSWIP Training Schedule - WELDING INSPECTOR LEVEL 2 - () (4 days course followed by exam) 1,16, WIS CSWIP SENIOR.

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    Cswip Book Free Download Pdf revolution discotheque CSWIP approval and Welding Inspector certificationLevel -2 WIS 10 Course Ref: Senior. TIEN PHONG Company Limited In co-operation with TWI. Dec View Download 7 CSWIP WELDING INSPECTOR. Suitable for: . Cswip Book Free Download Pdf revolution discotheque CSWIP approval and. Welding Inspection (WIS) TWI Training & Examination Services Granta . give 90 Magnetic particle testing Advantages Inexpensive equipment .. DOWNLOAD FULL PDF EBOOK here { guegaucheekupme.tk }.

    Visual inspection is one of the nondestructive examination NDE disciplines and for some applications may be the only form. For more demanding service conditions, visual inspection is usually followed by one or more of the other non-destructive testing NDT techniques surface crack detection and volumetric inspection of butt welds. Recommendations about conditions suitable for visual examination. Guidance about information that may need to be included in the inspection records. Guidance about when inspection may be required during the stages of fabrication. A summary of each of these topics is given in the following sections. However, it has become industry practice for inspectors to have practical experience of welding inspection together with a recognised qualification in Welding Inspection such as a CSWIP Qualification.

    A summary of each of these topics is given in the following sections. However, it has become industry practice for inspectors to have practical experience of welding inspection together with a recognised qualification in Welding Inspection such as a CSWIP Qualification.

    Rev 1 January Typical Duties of Welding Inspectors Copyright TWI Ltd Aids to Visual Inspection Where access is restricted for direct visual inspection, the use of a mirrored boroscope, or a fibre optic viewing system, are options that may be used usually by agreement between the contracting parties.

    It may also be necessary to provide auxiliary lighting to give suitable contrast and relief effect between surface imperfections and the background. Other items of equipment that may be appropriate, to facilitate visual examination, are: Welding gauges for checking bevel angles and weld profile, fillet sizing, measuring undercut depth.

    Dedicated weld gap gauges and linear misalignment highlow gauges. Straight edges and measuring tapes. Magnifying lens if a magnification lens is used to aid visual examination it should be X2 to X5. BS has schematics of a range of welding gauges together with details of what they can be used for and the precision of the measurements that can be made. This means that visual inspection of the finished weld is a minimum requirement. Welding Procedure Specifications.

    Inspection activities at each of these stages of fabrication can be considered the duties of the welding inspector and typical inspection checks that may be required are described in the following section. Examples of requirements difficult to define precisely are some shape tolerances. Good workmanship is the standard that a competent worker should be able to achieve without difficulty when using the correct tools in a particular working environment.

    Safety consciousness is a duty of all employees and a welding inspector should: Welding consumables Those to be used are as specified by the WPSs. In suitable condition free from damage and contamination. WPSs Approved and available to welders and inspectors. All welder qualification certificates are valid in date. Welder qualifications Identification of welders qualified for each WPS to be used.

    Weld faces Free from defects. Welding equipment In suitable condition and calibrated as appropriate. A welding inspector should also ensure that any inspection aids that will be needed are: Preheat if required Minimum temperature is in accordance with WPS.

    Identified and can be traced to a test certificate. Interpass temperature Maximum temperature is in accordance with WPS. PWHT if required Monitor for compliance with procedure check chart record. Welding process In accordance with WPS. Preheat if required Minimum temperature is being maintained in accordance with WPS.

    Repairs Monitor in accordance with the procedure. Welding parameters Current. Weld appearance Ensure welds are suitable for all NDT profile. Root run Visually acceptable to Code before filling the joint for single sided welds. Visually inspect welds and sentence in accordance with Code. Welding consumables In accordance with WPS and being controlled as procedure.

    Inter-run cleaning To good workmanship standard. Drawings Ensure any modifications are included on as-built drawings. The form of this record will vary. When an inspection record is required it may be necessary to show that items have been checked at the specified stages and have satisfied the acceptance criteria.

    For individual inspection reports. ISO lists typical details for inclusion such as: Welding Inspection Personnel should: Duties of a WI Objectives When this presentation has been completed you will have a greater understanding of the requirements of a Welding inspector before. Important qualities that good Inspectors are expected to have are: Visual examination. Other aids: Welding equipment: Weld preparations: Welding procedures: Joint A connection where the individual components.

    In general. Welding terms and symbols — Glossary for welding. Weld A union of pieces of metal made by welding. Brazing A process of joining generally applied to metals in which. Braze welding The joining of metals using a technique similar to fusion welding and a filler metal with a lower melting point than the parent metal. Welding An operation in which two or more parts are united by means of heat.

    T Connection between the end or edge of one part and the face of the other part. Cruciform A connection in which two flat plates or two bars are welded to another flat plate at right angles and on the same axis. Table 2. Figure 2. Autogenous weld A fusion weld made without filler metal by TIG. Slot weld A joint between two overlapping components made by depositing a fillet weld round the periphery of a hole in one component so as to join it to the surface of the other component exposed through the hole.

    Two carbon steel plates welded with a matching carbon steel electrode. Plug weld A weld made by filling a hole in one component of a workpiece with filler metal so as to join it to the surface of an overlapping component exposed through the hole the hole can be circular or oval.

    Partial penetration weld A welded joint without full penetration. A repair weld of a cast iron item performed with a nickel-based electrode. To reduce the stress concentration. A carbon steel lifting lug welded onto an austenitic stainless steel pressure vessel. This is a very important feature of a weld since toes are points of high stress concentration and often are initiation points for different types of cracks eg fatigue and cold cracks.

    Other non-standard terms for this feature are reinforcement and overfill. Land Straight portion of a fusion face between the root face and the radius part of a J or U preparation can be 0. Its value depends on the welding process used. For single and double V or U this angle is twice the bevel angle. Its value depends on the welding process used and application. Root face The portion of a fusion face at the root that is not bevelled or grooved. The dimensions below can vary depending on WPS.

    Gap The minimum distance at any cross-section between edges. Root radius The radius of the curved portion of the fusion face in a component prepared for a single or double J or U. For an MMA weld on carbon steel plates. Usually present in weld preparations for MIG welding of aluminium alloys.

    In the case of single or double bevel. Included angle The angle between the planes of the fusion faces of parts to be welded. Single V preparation One of the most common preparations used in welding and can be produced using flame or plasma cutting cheap and fast. For thicker plates a double V preparation is preferred since it requires less filler material to complete the joint and the residual stresses can be balanced on both sides of the joint resulting in lower angular distortion.

    If the root gap is zero ie if components are in contact. This asymmetric preparation allows for a balanced welding sequence with root back gouging. Included angle Angle of bevel Root face Root gap Figure 2. Whilst a single V preparation allows welding from one side. Double V preparation The depth of preparation can be the same on both sides symmetric double V preparation or deeper on one side asymmetric double V preparation.

    Like for V preparations. Double U preparation Usually this type of preparation does not require a land. Single U preparation U preparations can be produced only by machining slow and expensive. Usually applied to thicker plates compared with single V preparation as it requires less filler material to complete the joint. Permanent types are made of the same material as being joined and are tack welded in place. Backing strips can be permanent or temporary.

    It is also difficult to examine by NDT due to the built-in crevice at the root of the joint. The main problems with this type of weld are poor fatigue resistance and the probability of crevice corrosion between the parent metal and the backing strip.

    Temporary types include copper strips. Actual throat Design throat thickness thickness Figure 2. Double preparations are recommended for thick sections. The main advantage of these preparations is that only one component is prepared cheap. For further details regarding weld preparations. As a general rule: Types of butt weld from accessibility point of view Figure 2. Layer A stratum of weld metal consisting of one or more runs. Run pass The metal melted or deposited during one pass of an electrode.

    The relation between design throat thickness and leg length is: Actual throat thickness Leg length Leg length Design throat thickness Figure 2. The cross-section area of this type of weld can be considered to be a right angle isosceles triangle with design throat thickness a and leg length z. Design throat thickness The minimum dimension of throat thickness used for design purposes. Leg length Distance from the actual or projected intersection of the fusion faces and the toe of a fillet weld.

    Actual throat thickness Perpendicular distance between two lines. Since there is excess weld metal present. Convex fillet weld A fillet weld in which the weld face is convex. Due to the smooth blending between the weld face and the surrounding parent material. The above relation between leg length and design throat thickness for mitre fillet welds is also valid for this type of weld. This is why this type of weld is highly desired in applications subjected to cyclic loads where fatigue phenomena might be a major cause for failure.

    The relation between leg length and design throat thickness specified for mitre fillet welds is not valid for this type of weld. Deep penetration fillet weld A fillet weld with a deeper than normal penetration.

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    This type of weld uses the benefits of greater arc penetration to obtain the required throat thickness whilst reducing the amount of deposited metal needed thus leading to a reduction in residual stress level.

    Fillet welds added on top of the groove welds improve the blending of the weld face towards the parent metal surface and reduce the stress concentration at the toes of the weld. The relation between leg length and design throat thickness is not valid for this type of weld because the cross-section is not an isosceles triangle. Consequently this type of weld is usually produced using mechanised or automatic welding processes.

    To produce consistent and constant penetration. To differentiate this type of weld from the previous types.

    CSWIP 3.2 Study Materials

    Asymmetrical fillet weld A fillet weld in which the vertical leg length is not equal to the horizontal leg length. Horizontal leg size Vertical leg size Throat size Figure 2. Bevel Fillet weld weld Figure 2. Weld slope Angle between root line and the positive X axis of the horizontal reference plane. Weld rotation Angle between the centreline of the weld and the positive Z axis or a line parallel to the Y axis. PF Overhead A welding position in which the welding is horizontal and overhead applicable in fillet welds.

    PG PG. Vertical-down Welding position in which the welding is downwards. Welding Sketch Definition and symbol position according to ISO Flat Welding position in which the welding is horizontal with the centreline of the weld vertical.

    Vertical-up Welding position in which the welding is upwards. Welding position in which the overhead welding is horizontal and overhead with the centreline of the weld horizontal. Horizontal Welding position in which the welding is horizontal. Welding position in which the vertical welding is horizontal applicable in case of fillet welds.

    Stringer bead A run of weld metal made with little or no weaving motion. Terminology Objective When this presentation has been completed you will have a greater understanding of typical international language used in joint design and compilation of welding documentation.

    What is a Joint? Single Sided Butt Preparations Double Sided Butt Preparations Single sided preparations are normally made on thinner Double sided preparations are normally made on thicker materials.

    The leg length should be approximately leg length equal to the material thickness. What is the leg length? The leg length is 14mm. What is the design throat? The design throat is 10mm. How much larger is the CSA b comparable to a? Features to Consider Features to Consider The design throat thickness of a flat or convex fillet Importance of fillet weld leg length size weld connecting parts with the fusion faces which form an angle between and may be a b calculated by multiplying the leg length by the appropriate factors as given below: Angle between fusion Factor 4mm 8mm faces in degrees 60 to 90 0.

    If the gap is too big risk of possible burn-through. Root gap set to: Complete welding on the shallow side first. Weld Preparations Weld Preparations Type of parent material impacts upon weld preparation Thickness of parent material impacts upon weld preparation To reduce distortions on stainless steels welds.

    Reduce weld volume by: Reduce distortions by using an asymmetric V prep Use U prep instead V prep instead of a symmetric V prep. Cyclic load Fillet welds Double bevel weld Lack of penetration promotes cracking!

    Lower neutral axis is more advantageous also helps tearing. Defect An unacceptable imperfection. This standard classifies the geometric imperfections in fusion welding dividing them into six groups: These cracks can be situated in the: Cracks are more significant than other types of imperfection as their geometry produces a very large stress concentration at the crack tip making them more likely to cause fracture.

    Types of crack: Crater cracks are found only in the weld metal. It is important that an imperfection is correctly identified so the cause can be established and actions taken to prevent further occurrence. Depending on their nature. In steels this is commonly created by a higher than normal content of carbon and impurity elements such as sulphur and phosphorus. Occur in the coarse grain HAZ.

    These elements segregate during solidification. The cracks can be wide and open to the surface like shrinkage voids or sub- surface and possibly narrow. Solidification cracking is most likely to occur in compositions and result in a wide freezing temperature range. Occur in the weld metal usually along the centreline of the weld as a result of the solidification process.

    The thermal shrinkage of the cooling weld bead can cause these to rupture and form a crack. It is important that the welding fabricator does not weld on or near metal surfaces covered with scale or contaminated with oil or grease. Hydrogen induced cracking occurs primarily in the grain coarsened region of the HAZ and is also known as cold.

    Scale can have a high sulphur content and oil and grease can supply both carbon and sulphur. When this happens.

    The direction of the principal residual tensile stress can in toe cracks cause the crack path to grow progressively away from the fusion boundary towards a region of lower sensitivity to hydrogen cracking. Hydrogen induced cracks Figure 3.

    Figure 3. It lies parallel to the fusion boundary and its path is usually a combination of inter and transgranular cracking. Contamination with low melting point metals such as copper. If any one factor is not satisfied. Four factors are necessary to cause HAZ hydrogen cracking: With further strain the vertical parts of the cracking are produced.

    Contraction strain imposed on the planar non-metallic inclusions results in progressive decohesion to form the roughly rectangular holes which are the horizontal parts of the cracking. Lamellar tearing occurs only in rolled steel products primarily plates and its main distinguishing feature is that the cracking has a terraced appearance.

    These two stages create the terraced appearance of these cracks. Lamellar tearing Figure 3.

    Cracking occurs in joints where: Shrinkage cavity: Two main options are available to control the problem in welded joints liable to lamellar tearing: Gas cavities can be present in various forms: Description A gas cavity of essentially spherical shape trapped within the weld metal. TIG Comment Porosity can be localised or finely dispersed voids throughout the weld metal. Causes Prevention Gross contaminated of preparation Introduce preweld cleaning procedures.

    These can appear as a herringbone array on a radiograph and some may break the surface of the weld. Replace parent material with an unlaminated piece. Description Elongated or tubular cavities formed by trapped gas during the solidification of the weld metal which can occur singly or in groups.

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    Crevices in work surface due to joint Eliminate joint shapes which produce geometry. Description A gas pore that breaks the surface of the weld. Laminated work surface. Comments Worm holes are caused by the progressive entrapment of gas between the solidifying metal crystals dendrites producing characteristic elongated pores of circular cross-section.

    Causes Prevention Lack of welder skill due to using Retrain welder. TIG Comments The origins of surface porosity are similar to those for uniform porosity. Description A shrinkage cavity at the end of a weld run usually caused by shrinkage during solidification. Inoperative crater filler slope out Use correct crater filling techniques.

    To fill the crater for this process it is necessary to reduce the weld current slope out in a series of descending steps until the arc is extinguished. Comments Crater filling is a particular problem in TIG welding due to its low heat input. Causes Prevention Incomplete slag removal from underlying Improve inter-run slag removal surface of multi-pass weld Slag flooding ahead of arc Position work to gain control of slag. Description Slag trapped during welding which is an irregular shape so differs in appearance from a gas pore.

    Appear only in flux associated welding processes ie MMA. These only become a problem when large or sharp-edged inclusions are produced.

    Gross oxide film enfoldment can occur due to a combination of unsatisfactory protection from atmospheric contamination and turbulence in the weld pool. Comments A fine dispersion of inclusions may be present within the weld metal. Causes Prevention Contact of electrode tip with weld pool Keep tungsten out of weld pool. Lack of fusion Lack of Lack of inter. Lack of union between the weld and parent metal at one or both sides of the weld.

    Course outline cswip 3. Lack of fusion between the weld and parent metal at the root of a weld. Lack of root fusion Figure 3. Lack of union along the fusion line between the weld beads.

    Causes Prevention Low arc current resulting in low fluidity of Increase current weld pool Too high a travel speed Reduce travel speed Inaccurate bead placement Retrain welder Lack of inter-run fusion produces crevices between the weld beads and causes local entrapment of slag. The difference between actual and nominal penetration.

    Causes Prevention Excessively thick root face. An irregular groove at the toe of a run in the parent metal or previously deposited weld metal due to welding.

    Characterised by its depth. If the weld joint is not of a critical nature. Incomplete root penetration Figure 3. When examined from the root side. Causes and prevention Same as for lack of root fusion. Both fusion faces of the root are not melted.

    In this case incomplete root penetration is considered part of this structure and not an imperfection This would normally be determined by the design or code requirement. Undercut Continuous Intermittent Inter-run undercut undercut undercut Causes Prevention Melting of top edge due to high welding Reduce power input.

    Cswip Training Manual - cswip 31 book: CSWIP 3. Cswip 3. Well, begin by addressing the questions below! Cswip Handbook -? PDF Document Bellow will provide you all associated to cswip handbook! WIS 10 Course Ref: Senior Welding Inspector

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